Citations Publications citing this paper. Extraordinary outdoor leaders: an Australian case study Harriet. Motivations for mountain climbing : the role of risk Nina Lockwood. Exercise, health and well-being: A philosophical analysis. Andrew Bloodworth. Using mobile technology in an adventure sport Craig N.
Mills , Bertram Haskins.
Technology meets adventure: learnings from an earthquake-interrupted Mt. Emotional labour and the job satisfaction of adventure tour leaders in Australia Monica Torland. Sea kayakers at the margins: the liminoid character of contemporary adventures Peter A. Trends in adventure sports in a post-modern society Gunnar Breivik. Interestingly also here in Slovenia they are preparing a law, which will list down risky activities, which medical insurance will not cover fully or at the degree it covers other activities.
So me, as an ordinary hiker, taking small risks just occasionally and so being far from involved in any extreme activity, will be punished again. Couldn't care less.
If my car doesn't get isurance, why I should? Isn't it interesting how insurance companies don't want to insure climbers but will insure sedentary tras fat consuming people who take their bodies for granted. I wonder if anyone has ever bothered to consider the cumulative health care costs associated with such a life style vs that of a climber. Yeah, sometimes we die but I would expect that in the long run we're cheaper. Way to go MountaingirlBC! This was a well written and accurate article.
Its about time us climbing, skydiving, thrill-seeking junkies got some credit. If people like Teddy Roosevelt were alive today I could see him halfway up some tower getting ready for a base jump, decending into some remote cave system or putting up a first ascent. I wasn't completely convinced of my own position in the beginning.
But the more research I did and the more I thought about it, the more it makes sense. There is a role for this type of person in our society. The world would be a very different place without them. I had the pleasure of working at an outdoor school where Teddy Roosevelt's great-grandson was a student for 4 months.
I guarantee now that he is about 22 he is either climbing towers and base jumping or on drugs hopefully the former - a thrillseeker to the nth degree. Support for the genetic theory Thank you for writing such a thorough article that truly dispels many myths in which people who don't partake in "extreme sports" believe. Unfortunately, the intuition of the majority, however illogical it may be, is difficult to combat, even with sound reason and fact-based arguments.
Perceptions seem to be more important than reality in the world of politics, which is why information like this article is often contradicted by the "will of the people" and, consequently, by the actions of governments. Ignorant people should not be allowed to vote.
Everyone is entitled to their opinion but unless some seriously thought and research has gone into that opinion, it shouldn't be allowed to influence public policy. Another thoery revolves around what is called the TypeE personality, it is very similiar to what you described as the Type T personality. They seem to be exact copies of each other. Toggle navigation. Save Add photos See all photos. Log in to vote. Images 1 Comments Page Type: Article.
When a person takes unnecessary risks, and becomes injured or in need of rescue, the expenses for coming to their aid are often borne by taxpayers. It should not be surprising then, that these same taxpayers question why they should have to pay for these seemingly foolish actions. A backcountry rescue after skiers trigger an avalanche, for example, will cost thousands of dollars.
Skateboarders cause damage to both private and public property, and injure themselves. While these issues have been discussed at great length in the media, rarely does discussion focus on the negative impact of limiting access to these types of risky sports. What would be the effect on society if we made it more difficult for people to engage in these types of activities? While it is true that extreme sports do not appeal to the masses, there are still a significant number of people to whom these activities are an important and fulfilling part of their lives.
It is our differences that make a society interesting, so while it may not be for everyone, high-risk activities contribute to the diversity of our culture. We all crave adventure to some degree or another.
Frontiers | An Ecological Conceptualization of Extreme Sports | Psychology
Farley describes Type T personality types as "risk-takers and adventurers who seek excitement and stimulation wherever they can find or create it. They are often our best inventors, entrepreneurs and explorers. They are CEOs, surgeons, and civil rights leaders.
follow Take high altitude mountaineer Dr. The act of emigration, he says, is an intrinsically risky endeavor that selects individuals who are high in sensation seeking. Consequently, countries built upon immigrant population--America, Canada, Australia--probably have an above-average level of risk takers. He warns that much of the current effort to minimize risk and risk taking itself runs the risk of eliminating "a large part of what made this country great in the first place.
They often bore easily, and without other options their craving for stimulation can lead them to abuse drugs and alcohol, gamble, or engage in other destructive behaviours. Rock climbing, mountain biking and snowboarding offer a high that can only be achieved through self discipline, hard work, and a healthy lifestyle. People who are serious about extreme sports are highly trained athletes who take care of their bodies and tend to be very safety conscious.
There is evidence to show that the Type T personality is something people are born with. In fact risk taking has been linked to levels of dopamine, a chemical found in the brain that regulates mood and pleasure. Published research conducted by Dr. Ernest Noble of the University of California links the D2 and D4 dopamine receptor genes to risk-taking behaviour.
After his study, Noble estimated that 20 per cent of people are born with the D2 dopamine receptor while 30 per cent are born with both the D2 and the D4 dopamine receptors.
It is likely hardwired into our evolutionary makeup from ancient times, when our survival depended upon the ability to hunt and defend ourselves from attack from predators or other humans. We have been successful in eliminating the vast majority of risk from our daily lives: seatbelts, airbags, and other safety advancements have greatly reduced the dangers associated with driving a car. Most people wear helmets when they bike and rollerblade. Coffee cups even warn us now that the beverage we are about to enjoy is extremely hot. As Watters explains: The world has become far too safe, and heretofore unknown lands are mapped in far too much detail.
As a consequence, we need as many outlets as possible for people to participate in challenging outdoor activities.
We need wilderness lands; we need rock climbing areas; we need wild rivers; we need outdoor schools, and given proper environmental safeguards, we need free and unfettered access to outdoor areas. The right to risk is unalienable. It makes our society healthier and more vibrant.
Without relatively safe outlets for this drive, people predisposed to risk taking behaviors will seek out other activities, with potentially greater personal, social, and economic consequences. Take for example an extreme mountain biker who experiences a serious fall.
He may be badly injured, but the overall scope and consequence to society as a whole is relatively small. A medical team will attend the victim and transport him to a hospital, where he will be cared for. He will likely take some time off work to recuperate. There could be some strain on the immediate family in the short term but before long, life will return to normal.