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This is because national leaders and publics have yet to come to terms with the institutional impact of the EU on the traditional workings of their national democracies. The book begins with a discussion of what the EU is-a new form of 'regional state' in which sovereignty is shared, boundaries are variable, identity composite, and democracy fragmented.

Safeguarding National Popular Sovereignty

It then goes on to examine the effects of this on EU member-states' institutions and ideas about democracy, finding that institutional 'fit' matters. The 'compound' EU, in which governing activity is highly dispersed among multiple authorities, is more disruptive to 'simple' polities like Britain and France, where governing activity has traditionally been more concentrated in a single authority, than to similarly 'compound' polities like Germany and Italy.

But the book concludes that the real problem for member-states is not so much that their practices have changed as that national ideas and discourse about democracy have not. The failure has been one of the 'communicative' discourse to the general public-which again has been more pronounced for simple polities, despite their potentially greater capacity to communicate through a single voice, than for compound polities, where the 'coordinative' discourse among policy actors predominates.

The far right may not have cleaned up, but its influence now dominates Europe

The Euro Group is composed of the Ministers of the States whose currency is euro. Ministers from other Member States do participate. The Euro Group shall ensure close coordination and convergence of the economic and fiscal policies of the States of the European Union.

It shall consist, according to the items placed on the agenda, of the Ministers for economic affairs and finance, the Ministers for employment and social affairs, or other Ministers concerned by the agenda. The Euro Summit is composed of the States whose currency is the euro. The democratization budget shall aim at fighting inequalities, fostering sustainable growth, tax justice, employment, social cohesion and better convergence of economic and fiscal policies within the European Union. All items of revenue and expenditure of the Euro area shall be included in estimates to be drawn up for each financial year and shall be shown in the budget.

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Legislative procedure applicable to the adoption of the democratization budget, giving prominence to the Assembly in last resort. The Assembly and the Euro Group shall establish the annual democratization budget in accordance with the following provisions. On the basis of a budget proposal prepared by the Assembly, the Euro Group shall adopt a budget project.

The Commission shall assist the Assembly in the framework of the preparation of the budget proposal. The budget proposal and the budget project shall contain an estimate of revenue and an estimate of expenditure. The Euro Group shall submit its budget project to the Assembly not later than 1 September of the year preceding that in which the budget is to be implemented.

If within 40 days of such submission, the Assembly:.


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The President of the Assembly, in agreement with the President of the Euro Group, shall immediately convene a meeting of the Conciliation Committee. However, if within ten days of the project being forwarded, the Euro Group informs the Assembly that it has approved all its amendments, the Conciliation Committee shall not meet. The Conciliation Committee, which shall be composed of the members of the Euro Group or their representatives and an equal number of members of the Assembly, shall have the task of reaching agreement on a joint text, on the basis of the positions of the Assembly and the Euro Group.

The contracting parties to the treaty shall endow themselves, through the democratisation budget, with the means necessary to reach the objectives set out in article 7 and carry through their policies. Without prejudice to other revenue, the democratization budget shall be wholly financed from own resources.

It’s not Europe. It’s national democracy that’s dysfunctional.

The own resources shall be the progressive tax on high income, the progressive tax on wealth, the common tax on corporate profits and the tax on carbon emissions, as defined in Article The democratisation budget may foresee that all or part of the revenues from these own resources will be repaid to the Contracting Parties. A yearly budget statement shall be established in order to take stock of the amounts of revenue paid by each Contracting Party and the amouts of the repayements and expenditures it benefitted from.

Without undermining the competences conferred upon the Union on economic policy, the Assembly and the Euro Group, acting in accordance with the legislative procedures referred to in Article 11, shall adopt legal provisions to fight inequalities, foster sustainable growth, fiscal justice, employment, social cohesion and better convergence of economic and fiscal policies within the European Union.

The Assembly and the Euro Group, acting in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure, shall vote on the base and the rate of the common tax on corporate benefits, the progressive tax on high income, the progressive tax on wealth and the tax on carbon emissions which contribute to the democratization budget.

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In compliance with the corporation tax base fixed at Article 10 2 , Member States may adopt an additional tax rate. The legislative act projects or legislative act proposals provided for by the previous paragraph shall first be sent to the European Parliament for an opinion. The Euro Group and the Assembly shall adopt jointly the legislative acts applicable to the Contracting Parties. Legislative initiative belongs concurrently to the Commission, the Euro Group and the members of the Assembly.

They have a right of amendment. The legislative agenda shall be set jointly by the Euro Group and the Assembly. However, within the limit of half of the meetings, the Assembly shall set as a priority its own agenda and place the legislative act projects or proposals it accepts. The ordinary legislative procedure applies to the regulations, directives and decisions jointly adopted by the Euro Group and the Assembly. The members of the Euro Group submit legislative act projects. The members of the Assembly submit legislative act proposals.

Every legislative act project or proposal shall be successively examined by the Euro Group and the Assembly in view of the adoption of a single text. When, following disagreement between the two institutions, a legislative act project or proposal could not be adopted after two readings, the President of the Euro Group and the President of the Assembly shall within six weeks convene a meeting of the Conciliation Committee. The Conciliation Committee, which shall be composed of the members of the Euro Group or their representatives and an equal number of members representing the Assembly, shall have the task of reaching agreement on a joint text for the provisions still under discussion, within six weeks of its being convened.

If, within that six-week period, the Conciliation Committee approves a joint text, the Assembly and the Euro Group shall each have a period of six weeks from that approval in which to adopt the act in question in accordance with the joint text. If within the six weeks of its being convened the Conciliation Committee does not approve a joint text, or if the text mentioned in the previous paragraph is not adopted, the President of the Euro Group, after a new reading within the Euro Group and the Assembly, shall request the Assembly to take a final decision.

The Assembly shall approve the agenda of the Euro Summit meetings, with regard to the items pertaining to economic and social policy, and the semi-annual work programme of the Euro Group. Convergence and coordination of economic and budgetary policies. It shall approve the country-specific reports, the country-specific recommendations published by the Commission and the Broad economic policy guidelines provided for by Article 2 TFEU. In the framework of the Excessive deficit procedure, it shall approve the report prepared by the Commission in the case where a State does not comply with the criteria set out by Article 2 TFEU, the Council decision on the existence of an excessive deficit, and the measures decided on the basis of Article 11 TFEU.

It shall hold regular exchanges of views on the implementation conditions of the structural reforms recommended in the framework of the European Semester.